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HISTORY OF THE BOXE:1. - Introductory comments
World-wide history of the Boxe Things that we cannot leave to take in account Many types of boxe While that the use of the fists as weapon in street fight must retrace to the primórdios of the Humanity, the oldest documents evidencing the practical one of pugilismo as sport has enters the 4 000 5 000 years, and had been found in the Suméria (civilization that was developed in the region of the current Iraq) and Egypt.
Between these old documents several exist terracotas excavated by the archaeologist Dr. E. Speiser in Sinkara and Khafaji - today in exposition in the Museum of the Iraq - and innumerable Egyptian funerary afrescos, as the ones that we can visit in Beni Hasan. Also the regions of the Land are very varied where since the most remote times if it knows of the existence of pugilísticas techniques.
Thus that they exist, or to little they had existed, many styles of pugilismo: of the Indian sumérios and babilônios, Egyptian, minóico, Greek, Etruscan, Roman, Frenchman, Chinese, some types of boxe (boxe muki, malla-yudha, etc) etc, etc.
Boxe that in it will interest them here: boxe English For brevity, in we will limit them to deal with only the origin and evolution of that pugilismo that today we denote simply for "boxe" and that, to be more necessary, we would have to call "boxe English".
Geographically speaking, the history of boxe English had three great stages: • initial origins and developments: England between 1000 and 1850 dC • centered in the USA: of 1850 1920 • spread out by the remaining portion of the world: from 1920, approximately. The fights of boxe To the long one of the times had existed some rules prevailing, boxe English were fought under three types of rules:
the Rules of Broughton (introduced in 1743), the Rules of London (introduced in 1838 and modified in 1853 and 1866) and the Rules of Queensberry (introduced in 1867 and that already they had suffered some alterations).
But what it is really important to point since already it is that, in agreement we will see ahead, these rules influiram decisively in the techniques of combat (keeps adopted, socos preferred, prohibited used etc), in the duration of the fights, the frequency with that a fighter acted and even in the type of people who if dedicated to boxe.
To only advance an example: in the half of century twenty many professionals with 100 existed more than and up to 200 fights, while that until the time of the Rules of London, as was fought without gloves, rare a boxer arrived to make 20 fights in its life.
The appositive ones very influiram in boxe As will see later in detail, the origin and evolution of boxe English had been determined decisively by the appositive ones in money. However, as the most famous boxer of century XIX complained, John Sullivan, the money mixture with the little gabaritado public of boxe without gloves produced a mixture explosive that resulted in frequent public riots: before, during and after the fights.
This provoked the police repression: the interrompimento of fights (until the beginning of century XX was common the policy to go up in ringue and to stop the fight; the world-wide champion of weighed the Jack Johnson had some victories declared "for interruption of the policy"), the capture of the fighters (John Sullivan was imprisoned some times), as well as fêz with that many heads of policy forbade to practical education and it boxe in its jurisdictions.
However, this repression had its good side: it caused the majority of the modifications of rules that boxe had to the long one of the times and that they had allowed it to evolve esportivamente.
Recently the fight of clinch in boxe Until little more than one hundred years was only forbidden, before the Rules of Queensberry, the fact them fighters not to use gloves made with that the rhythm of the fights was much more slow of that currently.
All I beat given hurt very in such a way to who gave as to who it received. As consequência, few punch were applied during the fight: the fighters had great concern with the defense and alone they used the fists when they found that I beat it could perfectly be applied.
Great part of the time of the fights, mainly after first rounds, was expense with defensive maneuvers and clinch aiming at to consume the adversary holding it with a hand and beating with the other or looking its projection to the soil for then kicking it (it was what it was called purring).
Besides observing the curious guard and shunting line the use (parries) as prohibited of the socos, it notices the use of blows of clinch fight.
The technique of projection shown there is a variant of "cross buttock" that it was the most popular projection of boxe English until the end of century XIX.
Boxe always fascinated members of all the social classrooms How much to this, it is important to point that this allure has something of paradoxical in the measure where even so the middle class tended to abominate boxe, the elite and the poor classroom had supported it and always supported. For example, in one of the fights most famous of all the times, of Heenan versus Sayers in 1860, the English parliament did not have quorum in the day of the combat and this that the whole world wise person who the policy forbids the event and promises to appeal to the violence to hinder the accomplishment exactly it.
Perhaps by the way, who better characterized this paradox has been the Duke of Clarence that, to the inquired being of that it made mixed with ralé that it bet in a fight, answered that "he was as English there and not as lord".
The support of the English aristocracy allowed boxe to evolve technical, as much for the sponsorship offered to the fighters as for the opening of academies that were frequentadas by the nobility.
On the other hand, the biggest persecutions that boxe suffered had left of members of the middle class and had occurred mainly at the time of the puritanos and in the Age Victoriana.
The deriving persecutions of boxe of members of the English aristocracy had been rare. The example most important being consequência of the fight between Broughton and Jack Slack, in 1750, and which the temperamental Duke of Cumberland lost an appositive one of 10 000 sterling pounds, an enormous amount at the time. Suspecting that "cheat" had been victim of, the duke did with that the British parliament closed all the academies and places of fights of boxe and became forbidden practical its.
These measures had made boxe English to dive in the clandestinidade per forty years, almost being that for very little it did not disappear definitively.
Passing to the History of the Boxe great the scholars of the History of the Boxe they costumam to divide it in, at the very least, two great periods: of the "English pugilismo", that it goes until about 1740, and of genuine "boxe English", that it goes of about 1740 to the current days. In the small summary of the World-wide History of the Boxe
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